Thursday, August 11, 2011

Speculating about Future Development Environments

This series of essays, making up a sort of ode to the command line, got me thinking again about the user interface we face everyday, our software development environments. Remember when you were a kid and spent time imagining the ideal car — it should be able to fly and transform into a submarine —, or the ideal house — it should have an underwater garage to park the plane-submarine-car? No? Perhaps I was a weird kid. But that's what this post is about, conceiving what would be my ideal programming environment.

I can't get into this subject without first discussing the big rift: editors versus IDEs. I have to say I'm not a member of either faction, I love vim, I get a kick of learning new tricks (did you know that if you accidentally delete something and lose a previously yanked text, you can get it back with "0p ?), but I'm also a happy user of modern IDEs. In fact, I don't know why we have these factions. I suspect the origin is in the name IDE, Integrated Development Environment. It suggests a large piece of software integrating lots of tools to be used in the making of software, stuff like stupid code generation wizards and the always dissatisfying WYSIWYG interface designers. This perspective isn't entirely misleading, but I think it fails to capture the most important aspect of IDEs: they are editors that understand the programming language being used. They analyse your code's with regard to syntax, semantics and type structure to be able to realise feats such as jumping from a call to a definition site, changing a symbol definition and all it's uses, listing all lines of code that call a certain method/function, etc.

I see absolutely no reason why any programmer would forgo these abilities, but I see why many avoid current IDEs. The user interface is a mess of toolbars, menus, tabs, docked windows, popup windows of different sorts and gargantuan settings dialogs. Only after some time spent living in these strange environments one is expected to reap the benefits of working with a smart editor. In a way, the current crop of IDEs reminds me of the web just before Google appeared. To try to find anything with the search engines of the time was a guarantee of wasted time and probable frustration. The situation was so bleak that most of those search engines gave up on being starting points for the web and were becoming "portals", so users could stand a chance of finding what they were looking for within the sections and categories and subcategories of specifically produced pieces of information. Then came Google, with the right technology to extract relevance from the same sea of data everyone else was floundering on.

Aside from the immensely better ranking of search results, another striking difference was Google's minimalistic approach to user interfaces, showing little more than a search box and a list of results. That's where I'd start my ideal environment, a visually simple application to help the programmer focus on reading and writing code. Reading and writing code, not just text, and to be able to help with that, the application would need the code navigation and refactoring tools found in today's IDEs. The question then is, can this be done without all the cruft?

I think it can, and the way to do it is the same Google took to beat the competition: relevance and minimalism. All the housekeeping functionality we are accustomed to in current IDEs should be cast aside the in favor of a search centric interface. And there is plenty of housekeeping to get rid of: modules, windows, tabs, workspaces, perspectives, views, projects, buffers, editors, etc... As I envision it, a minimum productive environment would consist of a few tiled panes for editing code, with no tabs. The last part deserves a little explaining. The purpose of tabs is to show the currently opened files. My thinking is that whether a file is currently open or closed should be an implementation detail invisible to users. In order for this to work well, changes in files should be continuously saved and we should have access to a full version history (this is an old idea that is being picked up in Apple's latest OS).

As the ubiquitous file-tree view would be gone, all navigation would be done either directly — following a reference in a source file — or via search. The key to make this work is to go to extra lengths to perfect search relevance, perhaps taking contextual clues enriched by the abstract model of the code. For instance, a recently opened file that is close in the call graph to the file currently being edited would spring to the top of the results.

This minimalism isn't just an exercise in modernistic aesthetics; the problems caused by the litany of housekeeping features go beyond visual clutter. Each of those features generate work for the user, who has to spend time organising his environment and then remember where everything is. This is the kind of work we should delegate to computers, the user needs to deal only with the content he is currently working on and ask the environment for what he needs next. Don Norman makes a much better argument than I ever could for search based user interfaces in his column for the CACM.

Ok, so much for editing. What about the rest of the services of a modern IDE? Stuff like version-control integration, build systems, debuggers, test runners, console runners, diagram editors, kitchen-sink explorers, etc. My answer is that while many of these tools benefit from graphical user interfaces, they don't necessarily need to be in the same application as the editor. Some of them could maybe reuse some code from the IDE, but there is no need for them to share window space with the code.

So ends my wish-list for a future development environment, a fitting time to restate this is not a prediction, as I see no movement in this direction. Quite the opposite, actually, as most IDEs keep sprawling in ever larger feature matrices.


Anonymous said...

Try QtCreator. It fits your description pretty accurately.

Anonymous said...

I definitely agree with you. I think one of the big draws of IDEs is that they appeal to beginning programmers - those are intimidated by the multistep process of compilation, linkage, etc. In my Intro to Java high school course, no one had touched a command line before. Even then we used TextPad to hide away "javac" and "-classpath" and etc - we just wanted to make games, not be bothered with all of this "compiling" nonsense. After the first year I discovered Netbeans and was immediately drawn in because of all of those useful features (code completion, etc.) that you described.

Four years later I still use Netbeans for Java dev but I'm frustrated by the large amount of time spent configuring popups and default window visibility and locations of toolbars - basically exactly what you've described. All of that extra work also slows the IDE down and interferes with the most critical features like CC or even just responding quickly to text input.

The DrScheme environment is perhaps one of my favorites - very succinct interface, very fast.

José Donizetti said... would be my perfect environment too. Would love to see some IDE/Editor trying to produce something like that. Maybe this post should be read by the companies who produce textmate or intellij.

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